WHAT IS INCLUDED IN THE AUTOMATED PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM. TYPICAL STRUCTURE OF THE AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEM
There are three levels in the automation system:
- Bottom. These are computing units, primary converters, as well as sensors and controllers that process their readings. Next, the controllers transmit information through the actuators to the next level.
- Middle. These are high-speed communication systems. They can be wired or wireless, industrial or household. These networks connect the bottom level (signal reception) and the top level (control).
- Top. These are blocks and control panels, operator panels, devices for monitoring and storing data. At this level, the regulation and control of the entire automated system as a whole is carried out. The control principle has to be clear to the dispatcher, and the equipment has to be convenient to use.
Main stages of the development and implementation of APCS
APCS development always consists of several stages.
- Collection of initial information for TS. This is the course of production processes, the conditions for their implementation (premises, equipment, etc.). A comprehensive analysis reveals inaccuracies and errors that can be corrected with the help of automation. Next, a technical and economic assessment is carried out: we prepare a general description of the system, the costs of its development and implementation, the projected final effect.
- After that, several revised versions of the system are proposed. They have to be correlated with the customer’s requests and determine which option meets them most fully — the final variant is accepted into work.
- Next, a technical specification for the final version of the automated control system is created.
- After the approval of the TS, a preliminary design is carried out. This is preliminary documentation with specification of all elements, their purpose, scheme and general function of the system.
- The final implementation is a technical project. Together with it, we develop documents for the supply or production of parts for the automation complex. Also, during the design stage, it is decided which software tools are required and how to create or adapt them.
After all the elements are ready, assembly, commissioning and a test working period are carried out, after that, acceptance tests are carried out.
APCS DESIGN GOALS
- Risk reduction: especially dangerous areas become safer when automated, and the human factor has less influence on the progress of work.
- Simplified enterprise management. Acceleration of industrial processes and efficiency improvement (calculated separately for each enterprise).
- Search and elimination of gaps in the technological chain. More stable product quality.
- “Rescue” of production when leaving the operating range (automatic emergency stop).
FUNCTIONS AND TASKS OF THE AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEM
When designed and installed correctly, the APCS system has practically unlimited capabilities, but it is possible to identify 5 main functions common to all enterprises.
- Digital control room: control of all important parameters, their recording and storage in electronic form. Possibility for remote control.
- Exact compliance with all algorithms and characteristics at any time intervals. Visual representation of processes.
- Frequency programming: it is possible to set the operating mode of production at peak and minimum loads in advance. When the designated levels are reached, the system performs a stop or a start.
- Comprehensive accounting of water, material consumption, and the operating resource of installations. This information is transmitted to financial and technical services via network.
- Collecting information to analyze the process, optimize, modernize, search and implement new solutions.
ADVANTAGES OF APCS INTRODUCTION
- Precise information on the processes at the enterprise at any given time. The system reports any failures and deviations immediately.
- Operating modes can be changed with one click — literally. Automatic reconfiguration of individual stages is easier than manual.
- With strict observance of all parameters, the equipment wears out less, suffers less from temperature surges, pressure, etc. Associated repair and maintenance costs are reduced.
- It takes less time and effort to train an operator. Staff training can be regulated.
With the help of the APCS, you can collect complete data about everything that happens at the facility. Usually instrument readings were taken manually and entered into paper logs – not anymore – the electronic system does automatically by itself.
When creating digital archives, a backup is configured, so data for any number of years is not lost or forgotten. These logs can be easily unloaded on demand, used in any reports or calculations, and the system operation can be adjusted according to them.